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Annotated Bibliography

Research and Policy

After-school care in brief. (1998). Washington, D.C. The National Assembly for Voluntary Health and Social Welfare Organizations. Copies of this publication may be ordered at the website www.nassembly.org.
This policy statement undertaken by the National Assembly, contains several testimonies before Congressional staff on the needs for afterschool care by experienced professionals.

Bernard, B. (1996). Resilience Research. A Foundation for youth development. New Designs for Youth Development, Summer. pps. 4-10.
An article that describes resilience research, and provides a rationale for why fostering resilience is so critical for youth development, and summarizes the key ingredients, i.e., caring relationships, high expectations, and opportunities for participation.

Bringing education into the afterschool hours (1999). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. Partnership for Family Involvement in Education. For a free copy, cal 1-800-USA-LEARN or email: Partner@ed.gov.
This publication by the U.S. Department of Education provides a description of ways that education can be integrated into afterschool programs. The publication covers reading, mathematics, the arts, college preparation, and technology, and provides actual descriptions of programs that excel in these areas. The publication also provides many resources and contacts for those that want more information.

Ellowitch, A., Griswold, K., Hammer, M., Shelton, D., Townsend, L.O. and Wolfe, M. (1991). Portraits of Youth Programs. Education After School. New York: Institute for Literacy Studies, Lehman College, City University of New York.<
In-depth case studies of three after-school youth programs in New York City which incorporate literacy into after school activities. The program descriptions are valuable in that they capture the complexities of program change and how long such change often takes.

The future of children, when school is out. 09, 02, 4-20. Los Altos, CA: The David and Lucile Packard Foundation.<
A collection of essays covering the developmental needs of children during the non-school hours, afterschool program descriptions and typologies, along with additional essays on policy implications.

Heath, S. B. (2001). Three's not a crowd: Plans, roles, and focus in the arts. Educational researcher, 30, 07, October, 10-17.
An article that articulates how the arts in afterschool programs can serve as a springboard for youth exploring identities. In addition, engaging in the arts allows youth to learn skills that can be transferred to professional work environments.

Heath, S. B. & McLaughlin, M.W. (1994). Learning for anything everyday. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 26, (05), 471-489.
An article describing how activities designed for youth at community based programs are prime examples of what is called "authentic" curricula. The authors explain how these "organizational environments" support youth development and can serve as models for schools interested in changing their curricula to better engage youth.

Heath, S. B. & McLaughlin, M.W. (1996). The best of both worlds: Connecting schools and community youth organizations for all-day, all-year learning. In J.G. Cibulka & W. J. Kritek (Eds.). Coordination among schools, families, and communities. Albany: SUNY Press.
A chapter from a book on school-community connections that describes ways that schools and community-based organizations can build upon the strengths of each. other and "incorporate the attributes of the learning environments youth find most effective."

Hull, G., Schultz, K (Eds.)(2002). Schools Out! Bridging out-of-school literacies with classroom practice. New York: Teachers College Press.
A collection of essays from researchers studying literacy use during the non-school hours, drawing upon theories of critical literacy, activity theory, and socio-historical theory. Section III of the book are articles specifically about literacy practices in afterschool youth program.

Larson, R. W. (2000). Toward a psychology of positive youth development. American Psychologist, 55, 01.<
This article attempts to blend the philosophy of youth development with that of psycyhology by measuring the growth of initiative during structured voluntary activities during the afterschool hours.

McLaughlin, M. W. and Heath, S.B. (1993). Identity and Inner City Youth: Beyond Ethnicity and Gender. New York: Teachers College Press.
The results of a five-year research project investigating after school programs across the U.S. Of particular interest arc suggested key components of any successful program serving youth out-of school, and their connection to youth policy. Other chapters describe specific practices of youth organizations that support youth development.

McLaughlin, M.W., Irby, M.A. and Langman, J. (1994). Urban sanctuaries. Neighborhood organizations in the lives and futures of inner-city youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Based on a five-year study of youth organizations, this book is an attempt to profile the programs and the staff of organizations, and to analyze their effectiveness. The book provides case studies of youth involved in community based organizations, and also the adults with whom they interact and youth programs.

Merry, S. (2000). Beyond home and school: The role of primary supports in youth development, September. Chicago, Illinois: Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago.
A paper on primary supports, defined as the "full array of programs places and activities beyond schools that are available to and appropriate for all children and their families, and that supplement the family's own capacity to promote its children's safe and healthy development. The study surveyed a range of agencies and was able to create taxonomy of programs, such as self-enhancement, recreation, and career exploration.

Noam, G., Biancarosa, G., Dechausay, N. (2003). Afterschool Education. Approaches to an emerging field.
A survey of the current afterschool landscape and identification of some of the key issues in the field, such as the complex relationships between schools and afterschool programs. Also establishes a theoretical framework for examining the relationships between the community institutions.

Pittman, K. (1991). Promoting youth development. Strengthening the role of youth-serving and community organizations. Academy for Educational Development, Center for Youth Development and Policy Research. Washington, D.C.
A policy paper outlining the vision and principals of youth development and its relationship to the roles of community organizations.

Pittman, K. & Cahill, M. (1992). Youth and caring: The role of youth programs in the development of caring. Commissioned Paper for Lilly Endowment Research Grants Program on Youth and Caring. Presented at Youth and Caring Conference, February, 1992, Miami, Florida. Washington, D.C.: Academy for Educational Development, Center for Youth Development and Policy Research.
A policy paper articulating how youth programs promote youth development, in particular the "cultivation" of young people who are able to "convey and promote caring." The paper includes concrete examples of program activities.

A Matter of Time: Risk and Opportunity in the NonSchool Hours. (1992). New York: The Carnegie Corporation.
A ground-breaking report from the Task Force on Youth Development and Community Programs, this policy document provides concrete suggestions for program development. Provides evidence of the importance and value of after-school programming for youth.

New Directions for Youth Development. Youth Participation: Improving Institutions and Communities. (2003). Benjamin Kirshner (Editor), Jennifer L. O'Donoghue (Editor), Milbrey McLaughlin (Editor). Jossey-Bass.<
A collection of essays that explore the role of youth participation in youth development, and a description of programs that actively engage youth in decision-making, social justice and evaluation.

Positions for youth: Public policy statements of the National Collaboration for Youth, (1999). Washington, D.C.: National Assembly for Voluntary Health and Social Welfare Organizations. Copies of this low-cost publication may be ordered from the website www.nassembly.org.
A policy document created by the National Assembly outlining policy positions developed and approved by the membership of the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY), which can provide youth organizations with a framework for fair, informed, and productive discourse.

Safe and Smart: Making After-School Hours Work for Kids, (1998). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Justice. Partnership for Family Involvement in Education.
A policy paper that provides a rationale for the importance of after school programs. Provides descriptions of exemplary after school programs, in addition to a list of resources and materials. Text may be downloaded from U.S. Dept of Education web site at www.ed.gov. In addition, text may be photocopied and reprinted.

Wynn, J., Richman, H., Rubinstein, R. A., and Littell, 1. (1987). Communities and Adolescents: An exploration of reciprocal supports. Chicago: Chapin Hall Center for Children and Families.
A policy paper that reviews research on the supports needed for adolescent development and the contexts which provide these supports. The paper examines in depth the nature of communities as contexts for strengthening the capacity of youth, and conununity youth organizations in particular.